Sickle Cell Anaemia/Selective Breeding

Sickle Cell Anaemia

 

    • It is inherited.
    • Inside red blood cells you can find haemoglobin, a protein that has a very important mission, transporting oxygen inside the red blood cell.
    • When blood has a high amount of oxygen present: it looks red.
    • When blood has a low amount of oxygen and a higher amount of carbon dioxide: it has a bluish colour.
    • Hba: common red blood cells
    • Hbs: faulty haemoglobin=sickle cell (with a mistake)
    • The sickle cell doesn’t fit well in the capillaries and can’t transport O2 well.
    • Consequences: tiredness and shortage of breath. If it gets worse and without medical treatment can affect important organs such as the heart, the brain or the kidneys.
    • heterozygous: person that has two different alleles: Hba and Hbs.
    • homozygous: Hba and Hba//Hbs and Hbs. The same alleles.
    • Why natural selection hasn’t removed it from population? Because of malaria.

 

  • malaria: serious disease injected into the blood caused by an infected mosquito bite.

 

  • People with Hba+Hba: died because of malaria.
  • People with Hbs+Hbs: died because of sickle cell anaemia.
  • People with Hbs+Hba: lived for a longer time (enough to reproduce).
  • The amount of population with Hbs+Hba in places were malaria was present started increasing.

 

Selective Breeding:

 

  • Breeders choose a specific organism, the one with the characteristics she/he wants to be shown in the next generation.
  • If this process is repeated, this characteristics will be the most common ones in the population.
  • Artificial Selection: Nowadays farmers chose the plants and animals with ‘easy care’ characteristics to reproduce for their own benefit.

Rutina de Pensamiento

Pienso. Me intereso. Investigo.

¿Qué ha despertado tu interés hasta el momento?

Investigá algún tópico sobre el tema que haya llamado tu atención.

Lo que llamo mi atención fue tópico de Juana De Arco. Ella era una joven campesina francesa a la que se le hacían apariciones de santos. Le decían que debía ir a luchar. Ella guió al ejército francés contra inglaterra en La Guerra De Los 100 Años, y este terminó ganando. Sin embargo, fue condenada por herejía y quemada viva en la hoguera. Por más de que ella quería retirarse y volver a su hogar después de un tiempo siguiendo a sus voces interiores, la gente le insistió en que siguiera luchando, y fue capturada por los borgoñones. Fue una mujer muy valiente y querida por la gente.

Trabaje como Sere Braun

War horse: activity

In our last Language class, we presented our work on the final activity we did on War Horse. My group was formed by Emilia Varela and Serena Braun and we had to present a medal Joey could have won, why he could have won it and what it each part represented.

We believe Joey deserves a medal because he was the most loyal horse, who would always look after and suffer the loss of his friends and riders and tried to get his beloved owner, Albert, back, and didn’t stop fighting until he got it. He also deserves a medal in honour of his braveness since he got wounded lots of times and never gave up. Moreover, even though he was scared he never even thought about running away and forget about Albert, his friends and all the people who were always by his side to look after him.

 We designed this medal like this because the red cross represent England, the little boy represents Albert and the loyalty he has toward him and the Horse represents Joey. Moreover, the horse represents his good friend Topthorn and the flags are of some of the countries involved in World War One.

Previously on Romeo and Juliet…

 In Literature we are reading “Romeo and Juliet”. Before reading Act 2, our teacher, Jackie Kramer, told us to make a “previously on Romeo and Juliet” that will work as the prologue of this act. I worked with Serena Braun. Here is our work:

 

 After a fight between Capulets and Montagues in the streets of Verona, Prince Escales told everyone that if he saw someone else fighting he would sentence that person to death. At the same time, Romeo was depressed and heartbroken because Rosaline, the woman he loved, didn’t love him back. Anyway, he is informed about a Capulet party where she will go and decides to go just to see her. From the other hand, Juliet talks with her mother and the nurse about marriage, and tells them she is not prepared to marry yet, and that she is not interested in Paris. At the party, Romeo and Juliet fall in love and kiss. But later, they found out that they were enemies, and that their love was prohibited.

Lamarck, Darwin and Wallace

 

 

      1. Most birds don’t prey on the Hypolimnas because it looks like the Amauris, and birds have learned not to prey on that species because it has an unpleasant taste. Because of the similarities of these two butterflies birds can not tell the difference, and don’t prey on either.

 

  • The wings of the Hypolimnas have colors that are very similar to the Amauris’s ones (a butterfly whose taste is very unpleasant for birds). As they can not identify which is which, Hypolimnas are not eaten by them.

 

    1. Lamarck would say that as the giraffes needed to eat the leaves of the trees, they needed to have a long neck to reach the leaves. That’s why he would explain that since the giraffes stretched their neck so much to reach their food, and it would grow, so when they would reproduce they new organisms would have a neck that would be getting longer and longer.
    2. Darwin would say that as giraffes couldn’t reach trees, thanks to adaptation, when reproducing, the new organisms would start having longer and longer necks than their ancestors to survive.
    1. Lamarck would explain this change by saying that the characteristic was acquired and that swordfish would grow their swords by, over their lifetime, stretching repetitively to make it longer.
    2. Darwin would say that the swordfish sword got longer because on a swordfish there was probably a mutation, making its sword longer, and that swordfish reproduced giving its offspring the genes that would make it also have a long sword. That swordfish would reproduce, having the same effect on its offspring, eventually the swordfish with a short sword would die out, and the swordfish with the long swords would survive.
  1. We think that Darwin’s theory could be used, but to explain the opposite situation, that elephants come from mammoths. He would explain that as the conditions in which they lived started changing and getting hotter, all the fur mammoths had wouldn’t help as it did when it was cold, it would just make them feel hot. Also he would say that their canine teeth became smaller because they started killing less animals to eat them and being less aggressive. The ones who didn’t adapt died because of the “survival of the fittest” (Darwin’s theory).

I worked with Serena Braun.

Transformaciones en Europa Feudal

Hoy en Historia leímos sobre las transformaciones en Europa Feudal y nuestra profesora nos dijo que teníamos que hacer la siguiente actividad:

Actividad: 

1- La primera imagen hace referencia al molino hidráulico, la segunda al cambio producido en el arado (dejó de ser con bueyes y empezó a realizarse con caballos) y la tercera a la rotación trienal de cultivos.

2- palabras: Despegue económica – innovaciones técnicas – comercio – crecimiento demográfico – arado – molino – rotación trienal. 

En el siglo XI hubo un despegue económico en Europa gracias a diferentes innovaciones técnicas. Debido a esto, el comercio comenzó a florecer. Además, hubo un gran crecimiento demográfico en ciudades tales como Florencia, París, Venecia, Londres, Bélgica y Roma. Algunos de los cambios más importantes fueron el arado a caballo, que antes se realizaba con un buey, el molino hidráulico, que antes era a viento, y finalmente, la rotación trienal, en la cual la tierra se dividía e 3: en una parte se cultivaban cereales, en la otra legumbres y la otra era el barbecho donde a la tierra descansaba.

Lab Safety Rules

Today in our Biology class we saw a video about the lab safety rules and wrote our own ones, they are the following:
1) Don’t run inside
2) Be tidy and avoid rubbish arround
3) Avoid long sleeves
4) Hair must be tied up
5) Never drink or eat inside
6) Let the teachers know when a glass is broken
7) Wear safty goggles in the correct way
8) Never smell substances directly
9) When heating substances or liquids keep test tubes with their pointing away from people
10) Never refill the original contain with the substance. Just discard it.

Here is the video we saw:

Trabajo Práctico

Trabajo de Geografia

  • La Perestroika fue una reforma económica llevada a cabo por Mijail Gorbachov en la Unión Soviética con el fin de poder encontrar un nuevo sistema económico dentro del socialismo. La consecuencia de este movimiento político fue la decadencia del país ya que muchos criticaban la nueva reforma ya que temían que destruya el sistema socialista
  • Los países bálticos actuales que formaron parte de la URSS eran Lituania, Estonia y Letonia
  • La Comunidad de Estados Independientes se formó el 8 de Diciembre de 1991 en Bielorrusia por Rusia, Ucrania y Bielorrusia. Los líderes de estos países se habían reunido en Bielorrusia, donde firmaron el Tratado de Belavezha dando lugar a la creación de La Comunidad de Estados independientes.
  • Serguei
    1. Serguei vive actualmente en Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    2. Cuando era un niño, Serguei vivía en Tashkent, la capital de Uzbekistán que en ese momento era parte de la URSS.
    3. En 1991, Uzbekistán se declaró independiente por lo tanto la ciudad de Tashkent se transformó en una ciudad de Uzbekistán, más específicamente su capital.
    4. Está foto muestra como era al mapa antes y después de 1991, ósea cuando se separó la URSS. Lo que está remarcado en rojo es la URSS y los países de adentro son los países que formaban la URSS.
    5. Los cambios de su vida cotidiana que relata son que, después del 91, empezaron a llegar videojuegos a Turquía y a China por lo tanto pudo ver como un videojuego era aunque no pudo jugar con uno. Le parecía algo increíble y extraordinario.
    6. Se relaciona con lo visto en clase ya que lo que vimos es que los Estados capitalistas se caracterizaban por los medios de producción privados, lo que significa que cada compañía podía producir lo que quisiera. Sin embargo, en Estados comunistas como la Unión Soviética, los medios de producción eran de propiedad estatal y buscaban el beneficio colectivo. Esto significa, que en los Estados capitalistas se producían productos menos habituales, como los videojuegos, mientras que en los comunistas se producían productos más regulares, decididos por el Estado.
  • Video: https://youtu.be/ukRUmhnfjEM
  • La infancia de Djokovic no fue muy feliz, ya que tuvo que pasar por diversas guerras en las que perdía cada vez más seres queridos. Según él, el tenis fue lo que lo salvó porque lo pudo aislar de la guerra y no pensar tanto en todo lo que estaba pasando en su alrededor.

Trabajé con: Emilia Varela y Serena Braun.